SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS USED: + = poetic or archaicword (e.g. +él "star", elen being the ordinary word) or a poetic or archaic meaning of an ordinary word (e.g. russë "corruscation, +swordblade"), * = unattested form, ** = wrong form, # = word that is only attested in a compound or in an inflected form (e.g. #apa, #Apanóna; see AFTER below), TLT = Tolkien's lifetime (by some called "Real Time", as opposed to:) MET = Middle-Earth Time (or rather Arda Time, since Quenya originated in the Blessed Realm), LotR = The Lord of the Rings (HarperCollinsPublishers, one-volume edition of 1991), Silm = The Silmarillion (HarperCollinsPublishers 1994), MC = The Monsters and the Critics and other Essays, MR = Morgoth's Ring, LR = The Lost Road, Etym = The Etymologies (in LR:347-400), FS = Fíriel's Song (in LR:72), RGEO = The Road Goes Ever On (Second Edition), WJ = The War of the Jewels, PM = The Peoples of Middle-earth, Letters = The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, LT1 = The Book of Lost Tales 1, LT2 = The Book of Lost Tales 2, Nam = Namárië (in LotR:398), Arct = "Arctic" sentence (in The Father Christmas Letters), GL = Gnomish Lexicon (in Parma Eldalamberon #11 - references are selective), vb = verb, adj = adjective, interj = interjection, pa.t. = past tense, fut = future tense, perf = perfect tense, freq = frequentative form, inf = infinitive, gen = genitive, pl = plural form, sg = singular form. The spelling used in this wordlist is regularized (c for k except in a few names, x for ks, long vowels marked with accents rather than macrons or circumflexes; the diaeresis is used as in LotR). When s in a word represents earlier þ (th as in "thing") and it should be spelt with the letter súlë instead of silmë in Tengwar writing (though Tolkien himself sometimes ignored or forgot this), this is indicated by (þ) immediately following the word in question (e.g. sanda (þ), sanya- (þ); see ABIDE, ABIDING below).
A, AN (indefinite article) - no Quenya equivalent.
Elen "star" may thus also be translated "a star" (LotR:94). The absence of the definite article i "the" usually indicates that the noun is indefinite (though there are exceptions - see THE). ABANDON hehta- (pa.t. hehtanë is given but seems perfectly regular) (put aside, leave out, exclude, forsake) -WJ:365 ABHOR feuya-; THE ABHORRED Sauron (þ) -PHEW, Silm:418 ABIDE mar- (be settled of fixed) (fut. #maruva is attested: maruvan "I will abide"); ABIDE BY himya- (cleave to, stick to); ABIDING sanda (þ) (firm, true); LAW-ABIDING sanya (þ) (regular, normal) -UT:317/LotR:1003, KHIM, STAN ABUNDANCE úvë; ABUNDANT úvëa (in a very great number), alya (rich, blessed, prosperous) -UB, GALA ABYSS undumë -MC:222 cf. 215 ACCOUNT (noun) quentalë (history), lúmequenta (chronological account, history) -KWET, LU ACROSS arta (athwart) (Note: arta also means "fort, fortress") -LT2:335 ACTOR tyaro (agent, doer) -KYAR ACTUAL anwa (real, true) -ANA ACUTE tereva (fine, piercing); ACUTE, ACUTENESS laicë (keen, sharp, *piercing) (Laicë prob. obsoletes laica in LT2:337) -TER, LAIK ADHERING himba (sticking) -KHIM ADMIRAL ciryatur (only attested as the personal name Ciryatur of an admiral, but the word means *"ship-ruler") -UT:239 ADULT (adj) vëa (manly, vigorous); ADULT MAN vëaner; ADULT MALE nér (pl neri) (man) -WEG, DER ADÛNAKHOR Herunúmen -UT:222, Silm:322 AEGNOR Aicanáro (so in Silm:435 and PM:345; MR:323 has Aicanár) (Sharp Flame, Fell Fire) AFTER #apa (only attested in compounds like Apanónar, see below), #ep- (used in compounds when the second part of the compound begins with a vowel, only attested in epessë "after-name" - see NICKNAME.) THE AFTER-BORN Apanónar (sg #Apanóna) (i.e., an Elvish name of Men, according to WJ:387 "a word of lore, not used in daily speech") -Silm:122/WJ:387, UT:266 AGAIN ata; AGAIN (prefix) en-, (prefix) at-, ata- (back-, re-) (AT[AT]) AGE randa (cycle) -RAD AGENT tyaro (actor, doer) -KAR AGILE tyelca (swift) -KYELEK AGO yá -YA< DD> AGONY qualmë (death), unqualë (death) -KWAL AH (interj.) ai (alas) Ai! laurië lantar lassi Ah! golden fall the leaves (Nam) AIR vista (= air as substance); lindë (tune, song, singing); vilya older [MET] wilya (sky); vilma (lower air) (perhaps changed to vista, but vilma was not struck out in Etym); PUFF OF AIR hwesta (breeze, breath); UPPER AIRS AND CLOUDS fanyarë (skies), AIRY vilin (breezy) -WIS, LIN, WIL/LT1:273, SWES/LotR:1157, MC:223, LT1:273 ALAS (interj.) ai (ah) (Etym also gives a word nai, but this clashes with nai "be it that" in Namárië.) -Nam/RGEO:66, NAY ALIVE cuina; BEING ALIVE (noun not adj) cuilë (life) (LT1:257 gives coina, coirëa.) -KUY ALL ilya (the whole) (Note: ilya becomes ilyë before a plural noun: ilyë tier "all paths"); ALLNESS, THE ALL ilúvë (the whole), ALL THAT IS WANTED fárë (plenitude, sufficiency) -IL, Nam cf. RGEO:67, Silm:433/WJ:402, PHAR ALLOW lav- (yield, grant); NOT ALLOW TO CONTINUE nuhta- (stunt, prevent from coming to completion, stop short) -DAB, WJ:413 ALONE er (one, alone, only, but, still), eressë (singly, only, also as noun: solitude) -ERE, LT1:269 ALPHABET tengwanda -TEK ALTOGETHER aqua (fully, completely, wholly) -WJ:392 *AMANIAN (only translated "of Aman" by Tolkien) amanya. Cf. also Úmanyar, Úamanyar, Alamanyar "those not of Aman" (the Elves who started on the march from Cuiviénen but did not reach Aman; contrast the Avamanyar, another name of the Avari.) -WJ:411, 373, 370, MR:163 AMLOTH *Ambalotsë (Tolkien asterisked the word because it was not attested, only a possible Quenya form of Amloth. See "UPRISING-FLOWER".) -WJ:318 AMRAS Telufinwë (meaning "Last Finwë", not the equivalent in sense to his Sindarin name. The short form of his name was Telvo *"Last One". His mother-name [q.v.] was Ambarussa, but this name was not used in narrative.) -PM:353 AMROD Pityafinwë (meaning "Little Finwë", not the equivalent in sense to his Sindarin name. The short form of his name was Pityo *"Little One". His mother-name [q.v.] was Ambarto, or Umbarto, but these names were not used in narrative.) -PM:353 AN see A ANCIENT yára (belonging to or descending from former times) -YA AND ar (possibly a before f [and v?]: eldain a fírimoin "for elves and men" [FS], cf. a valmarion "and of those of Valmar" [from "Antatye Voronwi" by C. Gilson, Vinyar Tengwar #31 p. 10]) (In Sauron Defeated p. ii, o is translated "and", but LotR, Silm and Etym all agree that the Quenya word for "and" is ar.) AND YET a-nanta/ananta (but yet) -AR/Nam/FS, NDAN ANGBAND Angamando (Iron-gaol) (so in MR:350 and Silm:428; Etym has Angamanda) -MR:350, Silm:428, MBAD ANGELIC POWER Vala (pl. Valar or Vali, gen. pl. Valion is attested in Fíriel's Song); ANGELIC SPIRIT Ainu, f. Aini (holy one, god) -LotR:1157/BAL/FS, AYAN, LT1:248 ANGELN (island in the Danish peninsula) Eriollo -LT1:252 ANGROD Angaráto -Silm:428 ANIMAL #kelva (only pl. kelvar is attested, translated "animals, living things that move" in Silm appendix and WJ:341); laman (pl. lamni or lamani) ("usually only applied to four-footed beasts, and never to reptiles and birds"); MALE ANIMAL hanu (male) -Silm:52/53,/405:3AN, WJ:416 ANYBODY - if anybody: aiquen (whoever) -WJ:372 APRIL Víressë -LotR:1144/1146 AR-ADÛNAKHOR Tar-Herunúmen -UT:222, Silm:322 AR-BELZAGAR Tar-Calmacil -UT:222 AR-GIMILZÔR Tar-Telemnar -UT:223 AR-INZILADÛN Tar-Palantir -UT:223, Silm:324 AR-PHARAZÔN Tar-Calion -UT:224, Silm:324 AR-SAKALTHÔR Tar-Falassion -UT:223 AR-ZIMRAPHEL Tar-Míriel -UT:224, Silm:324 AR-ZIMRATHÔN Tar-Hostamir -UT:222 ARCTURUS (a star) Morwinyon (said to mean "the glint at dusk" or "glint in the dark") -LT1:260 ARE see BE ARGON Aracáno -PM:345 ARM ranco (pl ranqui) (LT2:335 gives rá [there spelt râ], but this word is certainly obsolete: In Etym, rá is glossed "lion".) -RAK ARMY hossë (band, troop) -LT2:340 ARNOR Arnanor, Arnanórë ("royal land") -Letters:428 ARROW pilin (pl pilindi) -PÍLIM ART Carmë (making, production) -UT:396 ARTIFICIAL CAVE hróta (dwelling underground, rockhewn hall) -PM:365 AS (prep) ve (like) -Nam/RGEO:66, 67 ASCENT rosta, ASCENSION orosta -LT1:267, 256 ASGARD Valinor, Valinórë (Tolkien actually uses this gloss of Valinor, as Asgard is the City of the Gods in Norse mythology) -LT1:272 ASIDE - stand aside! heca! - also with pronominal affixes: sg hecat, pl hecal "you stay aside!" (be gone!) LEAVING ASIDE hequa (not counting, excluding, except) -WJ:364, 365 *ASK #maquet- (only pa.t. maquentë is attested. The word is not translated, but undoubtedly means "asked": 'Mana i-coimas in-Eldaron?' maquentë Elendil [PM:403]. The question itself is translated "What is the coimas of the Eldar?", so the rest must be "Elendil asked". Furthermore, maquentë is transparently quentë "said" with the interrogative element ma [PM:357] prefixed.) ASLEEP lorna -LOS ASSEMBLE hosta- (gather, collect) -MC:223 ASSOCIATE otorno (sworn brother) osellë (þ) (sworn sister) -TOR, THEL ASTRONOMER meneldil -Letters:386 ATHWART arta (across) (Note: arta also means "fort, fortress"); GO ATHWART tara- (cross) -LT2:335, 347 AUGER teret (gimlet) -LT1:255 AUGUST Urimë (so in LotR; UT has Úrimë) -LotR:1144, UT:302/470 AUTHORITY Máhan (pl Máhani is given, but seems perfectly regular). Tolkien once stated that Valar should strictly be translated "the Authorities" (MR:350), but Vala obviously cannot be used to translate "authority" in general; it was used only of the Valar themselves (WJ:404). Cf. also adj. valya "having (divine) authority or power". Máhani was adopted from Valarin and originally probably referred to the Valar themselves. We are not told whether Máhan could or should be applied to a non-divine authority (at least it should not be capitalized if so used). Note: Máhan means *"Supreme One" rather than "authority" as an abstract. -MR:350, BAL, WJ:399/402 AUTUMN yávië (harvest - in the Calendar of Imladris, yávië was a precisely defined period of 54 days, but the word was also used without any exact definition), lasselanta ("leaf-fall", used of the beginning of winter or as a synonym of quellë; see FADING. Also spelt lasse-lanta with a hyphen), narquelion ("fire-fading" - this word from Fíriel's Song and Etym seems to correspond to narquelië in LotR, but the latter is the name of the month corresponding to our October.) LT1:273 has yávan "autumn, harvest", but this word may be obsoleted by yávië. -LotR:1142, 1144, 1145/Silm:439/LT1:254, DAT, FS, NAR/KWAL, Letters:382 AVENUE OF TREES aldëon -LT1:249 AWAKE coiva- (so in LT1:257; read *cuiva- in mature Quenya? Cf. the following:) AWAKENING (noun) cuivië (obsoleting coivië in LT1:257), cuivë; AWAKENING (adj) cuivëa -KUY/Silm:429 AWAY oa, oar (viewed from the point of view of the thing, person, or place left). See also GO AWAY. -WJ:366 cf. 361 AWNING teltassë -GL:70 AXE pelecco -LT2:346 BABE lapsë -LAP BACK - LT2:338 mentions a Gnomish word alm, said to mean "the broad of the back from shoulder to shoulder, back, shoulders". It is stated that the "Qenya" cognate of this Gnomish word occurs in the name Aikaldamor - i.e., #aldamo or #aldamor? But this is hardly a valid word in mature Quenya. BACK- (prefix) at-, ata- (re-, again-); THOSE WHO GO BACK Nandor (Elves that left the March from Cuiviénen) -AT(AT), WJ:384 BACKWARDS nan- (prefix?) -MBAS BAD - Gnomish fêg is so glossed in GL:34, and this is equated with Q faica, glossed "contemptible, mean" under SPAY. BAKE masta- -MBAS BALE OUT calpa- (draw water, scoop out) -KALPA BALL coron -KOR BALROG Valarauko (pl. Valaraukar) (so in the Silmarillion - in Etym the Quenya form of Sindarin balrog is malarauco, while LT1:250 gives Malcaraucë) -Silm:35/425/439, RUK BAND nossë (army, troop) -LT2:340 BANK (esp. of river) ráva -RAMBÁ BARK - Tolkien originally thought that parma "book" really meant "skin, bark; parchment", with "book, writings" as the secondary meaning. But in Etym parma is derived from a stem meaning "compose, put together", obsoleting the old etymology. -LT2:346, contrast PAR BASE sundo (root, root-word) (pl. #sundar, isolated from Tarmasundar in UT:166), talan (talam-) (floor, ground), talma (foundation, root); BASE-STRUCTURE sundocarmë -SUD, WJ:319, TALAM, TAL, LT:343 BATTER palpa- (beat) -PALAP BAY (small and landlocked) hópa (haven, harbour) -KHOP BE The only forms of the verb "to be" in the published corpus are ná "is" , nar "are", and nai "be it that" (mistranslated "maybe" in LotR). The word ëa is variously translated "is", "it is", "let it be". Fíriel's Song contains a word ye "is", but ye may be obsolete in mature Quenya. For "was", some writers have used né, pl. ("were") ner. Cf. also uin and umin "I do not, am not" (1. pers. aorist), pa.t. úmë. -Nam/RGEO:67, An Introduction to Elvish:5, Silm:21/391, FS, UGU/UMU BE GONE! heca! - also with pronominal affixes: sg hecat, pl hecal "you be gone!" (stand aside!) -WJ:364 BEACH falas (falass-), falassë (shore, line of surf), falas, hresta (ablative hrestallo is attested) -LT1:253, Silm:431, PHAL/LT2:339, MC:221/222/223 BEAR (vb) #col- (verb stem isolated from #colindo "bearer". Cf. mel- "to love", melindo "lover". #Col- can also be translated *"wear" [of clothes], cf. the past participle colla "borne, worn".) BEAR FRUIT yavin (which must mean *"I bear fruit", stem #yav-. Tolkien often employs the 1. person aorist when mentioning a verb in his wordlists.) -LotR:989, cf. Letters:308 and MEL, MR:385, LT1:273 BEAR (noun) morco -MORÓK BEARD fanga (obsoleting vanga in GL:21; GL:34 has fangë "long beard", while GL:63 gives poa. Use fanga.) -SPÁNAG BEARER #colindo (only attested in the pl compound cormacolindor "Ring-bearers") -LotR:989, cf. Letters:308 BEAT palpa- (batter) -PALAP BEAUTIFUL vanya (Note: a homonym means "disappear"), linda, calwa, vanima (nominal pl vanimar "beautiful ones" and partitive plural genitive vanimálion are attested) (fair, proper, right). According to MR:49, Maiar means "the Beautiful", but in Quenya this is the name of an order of spirits and cannot be used as a general adjective. BEAUTY vanessë -BAN, SLIN, LT1:254, LotR:1017 cf. Letters:308, LT1:272, MR:49 BED caima; BEDCHAMBER caimasan (þ) (pl. caimasambi); BEDRIDDEN caimassë, caimassëa (sick); LYING IN BED (noun) caila (sickness) -KAY, STAB BEE nier (honey-bee), nion -GL:60 BEECH feren, fernë (pl. ferni in both cases) (LT2:343 gives neldor "beech"; this word may be obsolete in mature Quenya.) -PHER BEECHEN ferinya -PHÉREN BEGET nosta- (also glossed "give birth"), onta- (pa.t. ónë or ontanë); BEGETTER #nostar (see note), ontaro (m.), ontarë (f.) (parent). (In LotR, the form nostari "begetters, parents" occurs; sg #nostar. Nostari was changed from ontari in Tolkien's first draft [see SD:73], so he may have scrapped ontaro, ontarë in favour of #nostar [or m. *nostaro, f. *nostarë???] Did he also reject the verb onta- in favour of nosta-?) -SD:73, ONO, LotR:1017 cf. Letters:308 BEGINNING *yessë (Corrected from the actual reading esse, derived from a stem that was marked with a query by Tolkien because esse also = name. Evidence from LotR indicates that he decided to change the stem in question from ESE to *YESE, thus eliminating this homophony: In LotR:1142 we find yestarë, apparently meaning *"first-day" - it is not translated, but it was the name of the first day of the year and ré means "day". In Etym [stem ESE] the word for "first" was esta. So for esta "first", esse "beginning" and essea "?primary" [gloss illegible], we should evidently read *yesta, *yessë and yessëa.) -ESE/ESET BEGOTTEN - see FIRST-BEGOTTEN. BEHOLD cen- (see) (future tense cenuva is attested) -MC:222 BEING ëala (spirit).Pl. ëalar is attested. Eälar are spirits whose natural state it is to exist without a physical body, e.g. Balrogs. -MR:165 BEING ALIVE (noun) cuilë -KUY BELEGOST Túrosto (Mickleburg) -WJ:389 BELERIAND Hecelmar, Heceldamar (lit. *"home of the Eglath", q.v.) This is said to be the name for Beleriand used "in the language of the loremasters of Aman". The cognate of Sindarin "Beleriand" is #Valariandë; only the form Valarianden is attested (a genitive formation from an earlier "Qenya" variant; in mature Quenya it would be a dative). The latter may be the name used in Exilic Quenya. Beleriand was also called Ingolondë "Land of the Gnomes [Noldor]". -WJ:365, LR:202, ÑGOLOD BELL nyellë -NYEL BELLIED #cumba (isolated from sauricumba "foulbellied"). This adjective may point to *cumbo or something similar as the likely word for "belly". -SD:68, 72 BELOVED melda (dear). Cf. nessamelda, *"beloved of Nessa", a flagrant evergreen tree brought to Númenor by the Eldar. -MEL, UT:456 BELZAGAR Calmacil -UT:222 BEND #cúna- (derived from the adj. cúna "bent"; see MC:223. In menel acúna "the heavens bending" the word is used intransitively.) -MC:222/223 cf. 215 BENEATH undu (down, under) -UNU BENT cúna (curved; cúna is also used as a verbal stem, see BEND), raica (crooked, wrong), cauca (crooked, humped), sara (þ) (stiff dry grass) -MC:223, RAYAK, LT1:257, STAR BERRY piucca -GL:64 (glossed "blackberry" in LT2:347) BESIDE ara, also ar- as prefix. -AR BETWEEN imbë -Nam/RGEO:67 BEYOND pella (a postposition in Quenya: Andúnë pella "beyond the West", elenillor pella "from beyond the stars") -Nam, MC:222 BIER tulma -LT1:270 BIG DIPPER see SICKLE OF THE VALAR. BIPED #attalya (Only pl Attalyar is attested. The word was used of the Petty-dwarves, q.v.) -WJ:389 BIRD aiwë, filit (pl filici) (Note: both aiwë and filit are stated to mean "small bird", not "bird" in general), ambalë, ammalë (= yellow bird), lindo (= "singer", singing bird). LT1:273 also has wilin; this may or may not be a valid word in mature Quenya. -AIWÊ, PHILIK, SMAL, LIN BIRTH, BIRTHDAY nosta; GIVE BIRTH nosta- (but in later sources, nosta- is glossed "beget", q.v.) -LT1:272 BITE (vb) nac- BITE (noun) nahta -NAK BITTER sára -SAG BLACK morë (in compounds mori-, e.g. Moriquendi), morna, morqua; BLACKNESS mórë (night); BLACKHANDED morimaitë, BLACKBERRY piucca (only "berry" in GL:64); BLACK FOE Moringotto (the oldest [MET] form was Moriñgotho) (Morgoth) -MOR, LT1:260, LotR:1015/SD:68, 72, LT2:347, MR:194 BLADE hyanda (share), (sword blade:) +russë (corruscation) -LT2:342, RUS BLAZE urya- (The stem this word is derived from was struck out in Etym. However, several words that must be derived from the same stem occur in LotR, indicating that Tolkien restored it.) BLAZING HOT úrin (Úrin also being a name of the Sun) -UR, LT1:271 BLESS laita- (praise) (Imperative a laita and fut #laituva are attested, the latter with pronominal endings: laituvalmet, "we shall praise [or bless] them".) BLESSED alya, almárëa (prosperous, rich, abundant), herenya (wealthy, fortunate, rich), aman ("blessed, free from evil" - Aman was "chiefly used as the name of the land where the Valar dwelt." [WJ:399]. BLESSED BEING Manwë (the King of the Valar); BLESSEDNESS vald- (so in LT1:272; nom. sg. must be either *val or *valdë) (happiness), "BLESSINGS", BLESSEDNESS, BLISS almië, almarë; FINAL BLISS manar, mandë (doom, final end, fate, fortune) -LotR:989 cf Letters:308; GAL, KHER, Letters:283, LT1:272, MAN/MANAD BLIGHT yaru (gloom) -GL:37 BLINK tihta- (peer) -MC:223 BLOCK tápë (3 pers sg aorist), pa.t. tampë -TAP BLOOD sercë (so according to Silm appendix; Etym has yár [yar-]) -Silm:437, YAR BLOSSOM (white) lossë, ("of flowers in bunches or clusters":) *lohtë (corrected from the actual reading loktë because Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya.) -LOT, LT1:258 BLOT motto -MBOTH BLUE luin, #luinë (pl. luini in Nam; Etym and LT1:262 has lúnë), ninwa, ulban (adopted from Valarin; only used in Vanyarin Quenya), PALE BLUE helwa -Nam/LT2:340, LT1:262, LUG, WJ:399, 3EL BOAT luntë; SMALL BOAT venë (vessel, dish) -LUT, LT1:254 BODY hroa (In MR:330, Tolkien notes that hroa is "roughly but not exactly equivalent to 'body'" [as opposed to "soul"]. Hroa is also used = "physical matter"), DEAD BODY loico (corpse); BODILY sarcuva (corporeal) -MR:216, 219; MC:223, LT2:347 BOLD verya, canya BOLDNESS verië -BER, KAN BOLSTER nirwa (cushion) -NID BOND nútë (knot), vérë (troth, compact, oath) Pl. probably *vérer, *núter not *véri, *núti; cf. the similar formation tyávë "taste", pl tyáver. -NUT, WED BONE axo (pl axor is attested) -MC:222, 223 BOOK parma (writings); BOOK LANGUAGE (=Quenya) parmalambë -PAR/UT:219, 460, LT2:346 BORDER réna (edge, margin); ríma (edge, hem) -REG, Rî BORN #nóna (isolated from Apanónar, the "Afterborn") -Silm:122/381 BORNE colla (pa.p. of col- "bear") (worn). Also used as a noun = "vestment, cloak". -MR:385 BOSOM palúrë (surface, bosom of earth), súma (hollow cavity) -PAL, MC:223 BOSS OF SHIELD tolmen (isolated round hill) -LT1:269 BOTH yúyo -YÛ BOUND nauta (obliged) -NUT BOW (vb ) cawin ("I bow", 1. pers. aorist); BOW (noun) quinga, cú (also = crescent Moon), lúva, cúnë (crescent); RAINBOW helyanwë ("sky-bridge"), Ilweran, Ilweranta (LT2:348 has iluquinga "sky-bow", but this word was obsoleted when Tolkien changed the meaning of ilu from "sky" to "universe".) BOWLEGGED quingatelco (So it is translated, but this must really be a noun: "bow-leg" [quinga + telco]. No Quenya adjectives end in -o, unless this is the only one. Read *quingatelca for "bow-legged"? Cf. one of the other words from the same source, sincahonda, changed from sincahondo in an earlier draft - but at that time Tolkien had already omitted quingatelco and hence did not change its ending: See SD:72.) -LT1:257, SD 68, 72, KWIG, KU3, LT1:256, LotR:1154, LT1:271 BOWL fion (goblet), #salpë (isolated from tanyasalpë "Bowl of Fire") -LT1:253, 292 BRANCH olwa -GÓLOB BRAND yulma (Note: a homonym means "cup".) -YUL cf. Nam BREAD masta; LIFE-BREAD (= lembas) coimas (prob. *coimast-, cf. masta "bread") -MBAS, Silm:406/429 BREAK (vb) rac- (past participle rácina "broken" is attested); BREAK APART terhat- (pa.t. terhantë); BREAK ASUNDER hat- (pa.t. hantë) -MC:223, SKAT BREATH (noun) hwesta (breeze, puff of air), súlë (þ) (spirit) (earlier [MET] form thúlë = Súlë ; BREATH (vb) súya- (þ); BREATHER Súlimo (þ) (a title of Manwë; this is the literal meaning according to Silm:420); BREATH FORTH see EXPIRE. -SWES, THÛ/LotR:1157 BREEZE hwesta (breath, puff of air), GENTLE BREEZE vílë; BREEZY vilin (airy) -SWES, LotR:1157, LT1:273 BRIDE indis (wife) (This word may obsolete akairis in LT1:252) -NDIS/UT:8 BRIDEGROOM ender -NDER BRIDGE yanwë (joining, isthmus), yanta (yoke) -YAT, LotR:1157 BRILLIANCE alcar, alcarë (splendour, radiance), calassë (clarity); BRILLIANT alcarinqua (glorious) -AKLA-R-/RGEO:73/UT:317/WJ:369/Silm:427, GL:39 BROAD - LT2:338 gives a word aica "broad, vast", but this is probably obsoleted by aica "sharp, fell, terrible, dire" in later writings. BROAD SWORD lango (also = prow of ship), BROAD-BLADED SWORD ecet (short stabbing sword) -LAG, UT:284/432 BROKEN rácina -MC:223 BROOCH tancil (pin) -TAK BROOD luvu- (lower) -LT1:259 BROOK nellë (GL :46 has wentë) -NEN BROTHER toron (pl. torni) (= natural brother); otorno sworn brother, associate BROTHERHOOD onóro (of bloodkinship), otornassë (the latter is evidently the "brotherhood" of otornor, sworn brothers) -TOR, NÔ BROWN varnë (swart, dark brown) (in compounds varni-) -BARÁN BUD tuima (sprout); BUDDING see SPRING-TIME. -TUY, LT1:269 BUFFET taran, tarambo -LT2:337 BUILD carin ("I make, build", 1. pers. aorist - according to FS and SD:246 the past tense is cárë, but Etym has carnë; writers should probably use the latter (not to be confused with the adjective carnë "red". Past participle #carna *"built, made" is attested in Vincarna *"newly-made" in MR:305.) BUILDING car (card-) (house), ampano (= especially building of wood, wooden hall), ataquë (construction); BUILDER samno (þ) (carpenter, wright) -KAR, PAN, TAK, STAB BULL tarucco, tarunco -LT2:347 BUNCHES (of flowers) see BLOSSOM. BURDENSOME lumna (lying heavy, oppressive, ominous) -DUB BURLY polda (strong) -POL BU RN usta- (transitive, e.g. *Fëanáro ustanë i ciryar "Fëanor burnt the ships"), urya- (intransitive, e.g. *i ciryar uryaner "the ships were burning") -LT1:271 BUSH tussa -TUS BUT nan (so in Namárië and Fíriel's Song; Etym has ná, nán. Ná clashes with ná "is"); er (only, one, alone, but, still); BUT YET a-nanta, ananta (and yet) -NDAN, LT1:269, Nam/FS BUTTERFLY wilwarin (wilwarind-) -WIL/MC:222, 223/LT1:273 BUTTOCKS hacca (hams) -GL:47 -BY-mas (final element in place-names, see -TON) -LT1:250 CALACIRIAN Calaciryan (prob. *Calaciryand-), full form Calaciryandë (i.e., "the region of Eldamar...in and near the entrance to the ravine [of Calacirya], where the Light was brighter and the land more beautiful") -RGEO:70 cf. LotR:252 CALL yello (shouth of triumph) -GYEL CANDLE lícuma (taper) -MC:223 CANOPY (vb) telta- (overshadow, screen), CANOPY (noun) telimbo (sky) -TEL, LT1:268 CANNIBAL-OGRES Sarquindi (sg #Sarquindë?) -LT2:347 CAPE mundo (nose, snout) (Note: mundo also means "ox".) -MBUD CARANTHIR Morifinwë, short form Moryo (not equivalent in sense to his Sindarin name, which is the cognate of his "mother-name" [q.v.] Carnistir.) -PM:353 CARCANET firinga (necklace) -LT2:346/GL:36 CAROUSAL yulmë (drinking) (Note: a homonym means "smouldering heat") -WJ:416 CARPENTER samno (þ) (wright, builder) -STAB CARRY - GL:38 has yulu-, but in WJ:416 the same stem (there spelt JULU) is said to mean "drink", indicating that yulu- "carry" is obsolete in mature Quenya. Use rather #col-; see BEAR. CART norollë -GL:31 ?CASSIOPEIA Wilwarin (the identification of this constellation is not certain. Wilwarin means "butterfly".) -Silm:426 CASTLE OF CUSTODY - this is mentioned as the approximate meaning of Mandos (stem Mandost-) -MR:350 CAT mëoi -LT2:348 CATCH (noun) atsa (hook, claw) -GAT CAUSE (vb) tyar- -KYAR CAVE felya, rondo , rotelë; ARTIFICIAL CAVE hróta (dwelling underground, rockhewn hall) -PHÉLEG, ROD, LT2:347, PM:365 CAVITY (hollow) súma (bosom) -MC:223 CEASE hauta- (take a rest, stop), pusta- (stop, put a stop to), tyel- (end) -KHAW, PUS, KYEL CELEBORN Telporno (Letters:425) or Teleporno (UT:266). (The latter is stated to be the Telerin form, while Telporno must be the form used in Noldorin Quenya. Cf. Altáriel vs. Alatáriel; see GALADRIEL.) CELEBRIMBOR (= "Silver-fist") Telperinquar (possibly *Telperinquár-. Cf. quárë "fist"). -Silm:429 CELEGORM Turcafinwë, short form Turco (not equivalent in sense to his Sindarin name, which is a cognate of his mother-name [q.v.] Tyelcormo "hasty-riser"; the latter name was "never used in narrative".) -PM:352, 353 CELOS Celussë (see UT:426) CENTRE endë (core, middle), tólë -NÉD, ÉNED, LT1:269 CENTURY haranyë (or perhaps it means the last day of a century - Tolkien's wording is not clear. The latter interpretation may be more likely.) -LotR:1142 CHAIN Angainor (= "The Great Chain" with which Morgoth was twice bound; LT1:249 has the form Angaino) -Silm:59 CHAMBER sambë (þ) (-san, -samb- in compounds; cf. BEDCHAMBER) (room) -STAB CHAMPION aráto (eminent man) -Silm:428 CHANGE (vb) #ahya- (only pa.t. ahyanë is attested) -PM:395 CHANNEL celma -KEL CHANT lirin ("I chant", 1. pers. aorist) (sing) -LIR1 CHEESE tyuru- (so in GL:28; why the hyphen?) CHERRY pio (this word was also applied to plums). CHERRY TREE aipio (also used = "plum tree"???) -LT2:347, GL:18 CHIEF (adj) héra (principal); CHIEF (noun) #turco (isolated from Turcomund "chief of bulls, *chief bull"; this may not be pure Quenya, but Turco appears as a the short name of Turcafinwë, Celegorm's Quenya name - though that is translated "strong, powerful (in body)" rather than referring to more "political" power) -KHER, Letters:423, PM:352 CHIEFTAIN haran (pl harni) (in Etym also = king, but in LotR and other texts the Quenya word for "king" is aran pl. arani - see KING), cáno, cánu (see COMMANDER) (ruler, governor, commander) -3AR, UT:400 CHILD hína, also vocative hina with a short vowel, used when addressing a (young) child. Pl. híni rather than hínar; see CHILDREN OF ILÚVATAR below. "Child" as the last element in compounds: -hin (-hín-, pl. -híni), e.g. CHILDREN OF ERU Eruhíni from sg. #Eruhin; CHILDREN OF ILÚVATAR Híni Ilúvataro; MY CHILD hinya (short for hínanya). (For "child", Etym also has seldë; Tolkien changed the meaning from "daughter".) -WJ:403, Silm:387/432, SEL-D- CHILL ninquë (pallid, white); BE CHILL (of weather) nicu- (be cold) -WJ:417 cf. NIK-W- CHILLY ringa (damp, cold) -LT1:265 CHOKE quoro- (suffocate), CHOKED quorin (drowned) -LT1:264 CHOOSING #cilmë (isolated from Essecilmë "name-choosing", q.v.) -MR:214 CHRONOLOGICAL ACCOUNT lúmequenta (history) -LU CIRCLE rindë; CIRCULAR rinda; CIRCULAR ENCLOSURE ("especially on a hill-top") corin -RIN, KOR/LT1:257 CITY osto (town with wall round) -OS CLAD vaina -LT1:272 CLAMOUR yalmë -NGYAL (see NGAL) CLAN nossë (family, "house") < i>-NÔ CLARITY calassë (brilliance) -GL:39 CLASP tangwa (hasp) -TAK CLAW atsa (hook, catch), #racca (isolated from raccalepta, see below); CLAW-FINGERED raccalepta -GAT, SD:68, 72 CLEAN poica -POY CLEARED (of land) latin, latina (free, open) -LAT CLEAVE hyarin ("I cleave", 1. pers. aorist), CLEAVER #hyando in Sangahyando "Throng-cleaver, Cleaver of throngs" -SYAD, LT2:342, LotR:1085 cf. Letters:425 CLEAVE TO himya- (abide by, stick to) -KHIM CLEFT yáwë (ravine, gulf); sanca (þ) (split), hyatsë (gash), ciris (crack), falqua (mountain pass, ravine), cilya (gorge, pass between hills) (so in Etym, but cirya in the name Calacirya "Pass of Light" [gen. Calaciryo in Namárië] - though this clashes with cirya "ship". An early version of Namárië actually had Calacilyo, not Calaciryo; see An Introduction to Elvish p. 5.) -YAG, STAK, SYAD, RGEO:70/WJ:403, LT2:337, 341, KIL CLIFF ollo (seaward precipice) (The alternative form oldó may be archaic Quenya.) -LT1:252 CLOAK colla (vestment, actually a past participle "borne, worn" used as a noun). GREY-CLOAK Sindacollo, Singollo (so in Silm:421; MR:217 has Sindicollo. Note that colla has become #collo because -o is a masculine ending.) (Thingol) -MR:385 CLOTH lannë (tissue) -LAN CLOUD